This List of Acronyms and other Abbreviations was compiled from the coral, coral reef, marine tropical ecosystems, and related peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, and other written and electronic reports, including e-mail messages. The terms on the list number nearly 3,600 (as of February 2010) and continue to grow on a daily to weekly basis. CoRIS invites readers to suggest additional acronyms and abbreviations via or

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Acronyms A - Z Pages

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M&A Mitigation and Adaptation
MA Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
MAA Mycosporine-like Amino Acids
MAB Man and the Biosphere
MAb Monoclonal Antibody
MAB Marine Air Breathers
MAC Marine Aquarium Council
MACC Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change
MACDDAP Marine and Climate Data Discovery and Access Project
MACEMP Marine and Coastal Environment Management Project (Tanzania)
MACHC MesoAmerican-Caribbean Sea Hydrographic Commission
MACNA Marine Aquarium Conference of North America
MACOORA Mid-Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association
MADS Marine Assessment & Decision Support Programme (UNEP)
MADT Minimum Acceptable Down Time
MAF Marine Aquarium Fishes
MAFAC Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee
MAFMC Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council
MAGICC Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change
MAMBO Mediterranean Association for Marine Biology and Oceanology
MaNIS Mammal Networked Information System
MANTA Marine Science and Nautical Training Academy
MAO Municipal Agriculture Office
MAP Mediterranean Action Plan
MAP Mean Annual Precipitation
MAP Marine Affairs Program (DU)
MAP Mangrove Action Project
MAP Monitoring and Assessment Plan
MAP Marine and Atmospheric Program (BIOS)
MAPCO2 Moored Autonomous pCO2 System (buoy)
MAPK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase
MAQTRAC Marine Aquarium Trade Coral Reef Monitoring protocol
MAR Meso American Reef
MAR Meso-American Region
MAR Mid-Atlantic Ridge
MAR Mesoamerican Reef
MAR FUND Meso American Reef Fund
MAR-DOP & ISR Sea Institute, IMAR Center of the University of the Azores
MAR-ECO Patterns and Processes of the Ecosystems of the Northern Mid-Atlantic
Mar-Eco Census of Marine Life North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge
MARAD Maritime Administration
MARAMP Marianas Archipelago Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program; Marianas Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program; Marianas Research and monitoring Program
MarBEF European Union Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function
MARC Machine-Readable Cataloging
MARC Micronesian Area Research Center (UOG)
MARCO Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean
MARD Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Republic of Vietnam)
MARE Marine Affairs Research and Education (UW)
MARE Marine Applied Research & Exploration
MARENA Nicaraguan Ministry of the Environment
MAREPAC Marine Resources Pacific Consortium
MARFIN Marine Fisheries Initiative
MARINE Monterey Area Research Institutions' Network for Education
MarLIN Marine Life Information Network (UK)
MARNR Venezuelan Agency for Managing National Parks
MARPLOT Mapping Application for Response, Planning, and Local Operational Tasks
MARPOL The International Convention of the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
MARPOLMON Marine Pollution Monitoring Program
MARS Marine Autonomous Reef Surveyor (Trinidad and Tobago)
MARS Monterey Accelerated Research System (MBARI)
MaRSIS Marine Resource and Space-use Information System
MARTI Mesoamerical Reef Tourism Initiative
MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences; Marine Umweltwissenschaften (Germany)
MAS Marker-Assisted Selection
MASC Department of Marine Sciences (UNC-Chapel Hill)
MASDEA MArine Species Database for Eastern Africa
MASM Marinelife Aquarium Society of Michigan
MASNA Marine Aquarium Societies of North America
MAT Marine AquariumTrade
MATE Marine Advanced Technology Education
MAV military armored vehicle (DoD)
MAW Modified Atlantic Water
MB Megabyte
MB Megabase
MBA Marine Biological Association
MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute
MBES Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences Center (Medical University of South Carolina)
MBES multibeam echosounder
MBF Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries (RSMAS)
MBI Marine Breeding Initiative
MBIs Market-Based Instruments
MBL Marine boundary layer
MBL Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole)
MBMP Montego Bay Marine Park
MBMPA Moliniere/Beausejour Marine Protected Area
MBMPT Montego Bay Marine Park Trust (Jamaica)
MBNMS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
MbP Million base Pairs
MBRD Marine Biology Research Division (UCSD)
MBRI Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Initiative
MBRS Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System
MBSS Maryland Biological Stream Survey
MBTA Migratory Bird Treaty Act
MBTG Mobile Bottom-Tending Gear
MC Micronesia Challenge
MC Mississippi Canyon
MC Massive Corals
MC Madam Carty watershed
MC&G Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry
MCA Marine Conservation Agreement
MCA Multi-Criteria Analysis
MCBH Marine Corps Base Hawaii (DoD)
MCBI Marine Conservation Biology Institute
MCCIP Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership
MCD Marine Conservation District
MCD Centre for Marinelife Conservation and Community Development (Republic of Vietnam)
MCDA Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
MCE Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems
MCERC Marine and Coastal Ecology Research Center (TAMU)
MCG Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry Department (WHOI)
MCH Molecular Clock Hypothesis
MCMC Markov chain Monte Carlo
MCP Multiple Comparison Procedures
MCPA Marine and Coastal Protected Areas
MCR Moorea Coral Reef
MCR-LTER Moorea Coral Reef - Long Term Ecological Research
MCRCF Marine and Coastal Resources Conservation Foundation
MCRMP Millennium Coral Reef Mapping Project
MCRR Management of Coastal Recreational Resources
MCS International Monitoring, Control and Surveillance( of fishing activities for fisheries management)
MCSST Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature
MCT Micronesia Conservation Trust
MDA Maryland Department of Agriculture
MDB Marine Data Bank
MDB Multilateral Development Bank
MDBA Murray-Darling Basin Authority
MDE Maryland Department of the Environment
MDG Millennium Development Goals
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MDP Maryland Department of Planning
MDP Marine Debris Program
MDPI Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
MDREB Marine Disease and Restoration Ecology Branch (NCCOS/NOAA)
MDS Molt-Death Syndrome
MDS Multi-Dimensional Scaling
MDT Maximum Dive Time
MEA Multilateral Environmental Agreements
MEA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
MEABR Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (Chile)
MEAS Department of Marine, Earth & Atmospheric Sciences (NCSU)
MEDEA Mediterranean Institute of Advanced Studies
MedGOOS Mediterranean GOOS
MedPAN Mediterranean Protected Area Network
MedPOL Programme for the Assessment and Control of Pollution in the Mediterranean Region
MEDS Marine Environmental Data Service
MedWet Mediterranean Wetlands Initiative
MEEF Marine Environmental Education Foundation
MEERA Marine Ecosystem Event Response and Assessment
MEERT Marine Environmental Enforcement Response Team (Palau)
MEFC Marine Environment Forecasting Center (China)
MEFGL Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory (BU)
MEGIS Marine Ecosystems Global Informational Systems
MEI Multivariate ENSO Index
MEI Multicellular Endothelial Isolates
MEL Marine Ecology Laboratory
MELAD Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agricultural Development
MELSY Maximum Expected Log Stationary Yield
MEMAC Marine Emergency Mutual Aid Centre
MEMP Maldives Environmental Management Project
MEOW Marine Ecoregion of the World
MEP Ministry of Economy and Planning (Cuba)
MEP Marine Environmental Program (BIOS)
MEPS Marine Ecology Progress Series
MEQ Marine Environment Quality Committee (PICES)
MER Maritime Extractive Reserve (Brazil)
MER Marine Extractive Reserves (Brazil)
MERC Marine Environment Research Centre (UAE)
MERC Marine Ecology Research Centre (Borneo)
MERCOSUR Mercado Comun del Sur
MERIS Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
MERIS-FR Medium Spectral Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Full Resolution
MERMaid Metadata Enterprise Resource management Aid (NOAA)
MERP Marine Ecosystem Response Project
MERRA Modern Era Reanalysis for Research and Applications
MESA Marine Ecology and Stock Assessment Program (ABL/NOAA)
MESA Marine Ecosystems Analysis (NOAA)
MESB (also Marine ESB) Marine Environmental Specimen Bank
MESH Mapping European Seabed Habitats
MESI Marine and Environmental Studies Institute (COB)
MESSAGE Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impact
MESY Maximum Expected Stationary Yield
MEY Maximum Economic Yield
MF Mortality Factor
MFAR Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
MFARMC Municipal Fisheries Aquatic Resource Management Council
MFCMA Magnuson Fisheries Conservation and Management Act (renamed Magnuson Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act in 1996)
MFCN Marine Fish Conservation Network
MFDC Mbegani Fisheries Development Centre (Tanzania)
MFDS Marine Fisheries Department of Sarawak (Malaysia)
MFF Mangroves for the Future
MFIs Multilateral Financial Institutions
MFM Division of Marine Fisheries Management (FWC Florida)
MFMT Maximum Fishing Mortality Threshold
MFR Marine Fisheries Review
MFR Marine Fisheries Research (FWC Florida)
MG-RAST Metagenomics RAST Server; Metagenome Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology
MGD Millions of gallons per day
MGEL Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab (Duke U)
MGR     Mixed Gas Rebreather
MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex
MHHW Mean Highest High Water
MHI Main Hawaiian Islands (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui and Hawaii)
MHLC Multilateral High Level Conference
MHO Municipal Health Office
MHO Municipal Health Office
MIC Micronesians in Island Conservation
MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
MICCI Maritime Industry and Coastal Construction Impacts (SEFCRI)
MICOA Ministry for the Coordination of Environmental Affairs (Mozambique)
MICS Marshall Islands Conservation Society
MICs Medium-Income Country
MIDA Marshall Islands Development Authority
MIDI Marine Invertebrate Diversity Initiative
MIGS Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence
MIL Mobile Irrigation Lab
MIMES Multi-Integrated Model for Ecosystem Services
MIMP Mafia Island Marine Park (Tanzania)
MIMRA Marshall Islands Marine Resources Authority
MIMS Minimum Information about a Metagenomic Sequence/Sample
MINA Mariana Islands Nature Alliance
MINA Department of Environment and Nature of the Netherlands Antilles (NA)
MINA Fund Environmental Fund Netherlands Antilles (NA)
MIP Microbial Interactions and Processes
MIP Ministry of Fisheries (Cuba)
MIROC Model for Interdisciplinary Research On Climate
MIS Management Information System
MISE Molecular Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology Laboratory (University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan)
MISO Monterey Inner Shelf Observatory
MISST Multi-Sensor Improved SSTs for GODAE
MIST Marine Invasives Survey Team (Palau)
MISWG Mapping and Information Synthesis Working Group (CRTF)
MITUR Ministry of Tourism (Mozambique)
MIVA Marshall Islands Visitors Authority
MJO Madden Julian Oscillation
MKF Maui Reef Fund
MKSWCD Mauna Kea Soil and Water Conservation District
ML Mixed Layer
ML Marine Laboratory
MLBB Mangrove Lagoon Benner Bay
MLCD Marine Life Conservation District (HI)
MLD Mixed Layer Depth
MLE Marine Landscape Ecologist
MLG Multi-Level Governance (Australia)
MLGU Municipal Local Government Unit
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLOST Merged Land-Ocean Surface Temperature
MLPA Marine Life Protection Act
MLPAI Marine Life Protection Act Initiative
MLRA Mauna Lani Reef Alliance
MLSA Mauna Lani Sea Adventures
MLSSA Marine Life Society of South Australia
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWTP Mangrove Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Plant
MMA Marine Managed Area
MMAF Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (Indonesia)
MMAS Marine Management Area Science Program (CI - Conservation International)
MMBtu Million British Thermal Units
MMC Multipurpose Marine Cadastre
MMC Marine Mammal Center
MMCA Mañagaha Marine Conservation Area (CNMI)
MMDB Molecular Modeling Database
MME Multi-Model Ensemble
MMED Marine Mediterranean Group of the WCPA
MMES Masters of Marine and Environmental Science
MMHSRP Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program (NOAA)
MMI Marine Metadata Interoperability project (MBARI)
MML Mote Marine laboratory
MMLV Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus
MMM Master of Marine Management (DU)
MMM Maximum Monthly Mean SST climatology
MMMSST Maximum of the Monthly Mean SST (NOAA)
MMOP Marine Meteorology and Oceanography Programme (WMO)
MMPA Marine Mammal Protection Act
MMPR Marine Mammal and Protected Resources Program (NOAA)
MMRP Marine Mammal Research Program (NOAA); MMRP also TAMU
MMS Minerals Management Service (DOI)
MMT Marine Monitoring Team (CNMI)
MMTAC Monitoring and Mapping of Threatened Acroporid Corals (FWRI)
MMU Minimum Mapping Unit
MNCR Marine Nature Conservation Review
MNDF Maldives National Defence Force
MNG Mangroves
MNHN French Museum of Natural History (Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle)
MNM Marine National Monuments
MNN Mother Nature Network
MNR Marine Nature Reserves (China)
MO Microbial Observatories (NSF)
MOA Memorandum of Agreement
MOA Marine Oceanographic Academy
MOA Ministry of Agriculture (Saudi Arabia)
MOA Municipal Operations Analysis
MOC Meridional Overturning Circulation
MOC-A NOAA Marine Operations Center-Atlantic
MOCHA Meridional Overturning Circulation Heat-flux Array
MOCNESS Multiple Opening Closing Net Environmental Sensing System
MOD Manado Ocean Declaration
MODAS Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System
MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectral Spectroradiometer
MoES Ministry of Earth Sciences (India)
MOES-VI Marine Outreach and Education United States Virgin Island Style
MOET Ministry of Education and Training (Bahamas)
MOEW Ministry of Environment and Water (UAE)
MOFI Ministry of Fisheries (merged into MARD in 2007) (Republic of Vietnam)
MoGO Mobile Gulf Observatory
MonDB Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database
MONITOR Technical Committee on Monitoring (PICES)
MOOS Monterey Ocean Observing System (MBARI)
MOR Mid-Ocean Ridge
MORB Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt
MOS Margin of Safety
MOSE Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico
MOSTE Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (Malaysia)
MOSTI Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Malaysia)
MOU Memorandums of Understanding
MOUSS Modular Underwater Stereoscopic System
MOW Mediterranean Outflow Water
MP Main Pass
MP Maximum Parsimony
MPA Marine Parks Act (Australia)
MPA Marine Protected Area
MPA Center National Marine Protected Areas Center (USA)
MPA Database Marine Protected Coast, Reef and Management Database
MPA FAC Marine Protected Areas Federal Advisory Committee
MPA-ME Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness Project (CERMES)
MPAC Marine Park Advisory Council (Australia)
MPCD Marine Pollution Control Device
MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office
MPEG Marine Plant Ecology Group (QDPI)
MPERSS Marine Pollution Emergency Response Support System
MPI-MM Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (Germany)
MPMC Maximum Pentad Mean Climatology
MPN Most Probable Number
MPOC Malaysian Palm Oil Council
MPR Most Parsimonious Reconstruction
MPR Management Plan Review
MPRSA Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
MPRU Marine Parks and Reserve Unit (Tanzania)
MR Marine Reserve
MRAG Marine Resources Assessment Group
MRAID Marine Resource Aerial Imagery Database (FWRI)
MRC Mekong River Commission
MRDF Marine Resources Development Foundation
MRFFS Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistical Survey
mRFP Monomeric Red Fluorescent Protein
MRFSS Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey
MRI Marine Research Institute (Iceland)
MRI-AGCMS Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency
MRIP Marine Recreational Information Program
mRNA Messinger RNA
MRP Manatee Rehabilitation Partnership
MRP Multidrug Resistance Protein
MRPZ Marine Resources Protection Zone
MRR Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule
MRRI Marine Resources Research Institute
MRSD Marine Reserves for Sustainable Development (Brazil)
MRSP Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo
MRTG Multimedia Resources Task Group (GBIF)
MRU Marine Resource User
mRuby A bright monomeric red fluorescent protein
MRUP Multiple Resource Use Project
MRWS Marine Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary
MS Monk Seal
MS4 Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
MSA Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972
MSA Magnuson-Stevens Reauthorization Act
MSA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act)
MSC Marine Stewardship Council
MSD Marine Sanitation Device
MSD Minimum Significant Difference
MSDI Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure
MSDT Master Scuba Diver Trainer
MSE Management Strategy Evaluation
MSEL Marine Spatial Ecology Laboratory (University of Exeter, UK)
MSFCMA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
MSGP Multi-sector General Permit
MSI Mauritius Strategy of Implementation
MSL Mean Sea Level
MSMS Malaysian Society of Marine Sciences
MSMS Malaysian Society of Marine Sciences
MSN Marine Science Network (Smithsonian)
MSP Marine Sanctuaries Program
MSP Maximum Spawning Potential
MSP Marine Spatial Planning
MSRA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006, Public Law 109-479
MSRP Multi-Species Recovery Plan
MSS Multispectral Scanner
MSSSS Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
MSST Maximum Stock Size Threshold
MSU Mississippi State University
MSV Many Strong Voices
MSW Mammal Species of the World
MSW Municipal Solid Waste
MSWD Municipal Social Welfare and Development
MSY Maximum Sustainable Yield
mtDNA Mitochondrial DNA
MTIASIC Mitigating the Threat of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean
MTL Mean Trophic Level
MTMNM Marianas Trench Marine National Monument
MTO Municipal Tourism Office
MTQ Museum of Tropical Queensland
mtRNA Mitochondrial RNA
MTRP Marine Turtle Research Program
MTS Marine Technology Society
MTSAT Multifunctional Transport Satellite
MTSG Marine Turtle Specialist Group
MTSRF Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility (Queensland, Australia)
MTX Maitotoxin
MUFA Monounsaturated Fatty Acid
MUS Management Unit Species
MUSA Museo Subacuatico de Arte (Mexico)
MV mass-volume (curve)
MVA Marianas Visitors Authority
MVCA Minimum Viable Conservation Area
MVP Minimum Viable Population
MVSG Martha’s Vineyard Shellfish Group
MW Microwave
MWA Marine Wildlife Area (Canada)
MWF Mid-Water Fishes
MWG Management Working Group (Coral Health and Disease in the Pacific Workshop)
MWP Mussel Watch Project (NOAA)
MWP Makai Watch Program
MXR Multi-Xenobiotic Resistance
MYA Million Years Ago